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AMERICAN WINDSOR FANBACK ROCKER, Late 18th-early 19th century. Bamboo turnings, scrolled ears, shaped arms and scalloped rockers. Old green over red paint has wear. 14.5"h. seat, 39"h. Ex Winterthur, ex Bill Samaha (Ohio), ex Tom and Carolyn Porter, sold at Garth's, November 2004.

Condition Report: Bottom edges of rockers have some loss, especially on front right facing rocker. Three posts have tiny tacks added at top into crest. Small age split or pieced repair on front leg at rocker (difficult to tell under paint). Paint is thick in areas, expected paint wear and loss at seat, posts and stretchers, mostly along tops of arms.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $1,500-2,000

Price Realized: $3,360


AMERICAN DECORATED WOODEN SUGAR, Second quarter-19th century, pine. Wooden covered sugar "bowl" with canted sides and wrought iron nails. Incised compass and lovebird designs with original paint. Late notes state it belonged to Mr. Shutzman's (or Strutzman) grandmother, born June 9, 1799, married 1815. Wear and edge loss. 5.5"h. 4.5" x 4.5”.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $1,000-2,000

Price Realized: $27,600


FIVE AMERICAN BUTTER PRINTS, Nineteenth century. Two tulips, swan, cow and pineapple. Minor imperfections. 3.5"d. to 5.5”w.

Condition Report: Larger tulip doesn't have much age, other tulip missing inset handle, cow has age split. Scorch marks on larger tulip look purposeful. All have varying wear.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $250-450

Price Realized: $2,640


PENNSYLVANIA KRAUT CUTTER, Mid 19th century, walnut. Top and bottom have scratch carved compass stars with traces of original red and blue paint. Wear. 22"h. Ex Nellie Momchilov (Ohio).

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $150-300

Price Realized: $1,080


NEW ENGLAND TAVERN SIGN, First half-19th century. Oval sign with wrought iron strap edge and hangers. Civil War era overpaint with eagle and banner "The Union Must Be Preserved". One side has double image. Imperfections. 47"h. 33”w.

Condition Report: Worn, age splits, edge and surface loss. Multiple small holes (similar to shot scars) with surrounding loss. Vertical crack running through both sides but with a board inbetween the sides (perhaps later insert to block crack?). Splits and loss to frame, iron strap is attached but has some loose areas. Both sides heavily worn, faint signature on one side.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $600-1,000

Price Realized: $3,480


PENNSYLVANIA DECORATED BLANKET CHEST, Second quarter-19th century, pine. Dovetailed case with bracket feet. Original grained paint with red medallions has some enhancement. Interior till and wrought iron strap hinges. Wear. 23"h. 40"w. 19”d.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $300-600

Price Realized: $2,280


OHIO FRAKTUR, Watercolor and ink on paper. In the style of printed fraktur with angels, eagle and birds. German text records the birth of Johann David Durr in Chatfield Township, Crawford County, 1847. Below the text is a portrait of a young man in blue coat. Stains, foxing and some edge loss. Framed, 19.5"h. 12.5”w.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $400-600

Price Realized: $1,860


TWO AMERICAN REDWARE PIE PLATES, Mid 19th century. Coggled rims and yellow slip decoration, larger has brown glaze and hairline. Varying wear. 10", 12”d.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $300-500

Price Realized: $3,120


AMERICAN COIN SILVER LADLE, Marked for Bancroft Woodcock, (Wilmington, Delaware, 2nd quarter 19th century). "M" monogram. 14”l.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $200-400

Price Realized: $5,000


AMERICAN QUEEN ANNE HIGH CHEST, Third quarter-18th century, cherry with pine secondary. Two-piece chest with dovetailed drawers with replaced pulls, broken arch pediment and cabriole legs with pad feet. Refinished , some imperfections. 83"h. 41"w. 19.5”d.

Condition Report: Replaced waist molding, small pieced repairs including center plinth and all drawers on top, age splits in bottom sides. Top sides are two board and have some seam separation. Stripped of old varnish. Small piece of a backboard missing. Some replaced nails on backboards. Waist molding has some nicks on the left front.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $1,000-1,500

Price Realized: $3,000


PAIR OF AMERICAN PORTRAITS, Found in southern Indiana, gouache on paper, unsigned. Gentleman farmer identified as James Green, aged 42, and his wife Frances, aged 48, in 1842. He holds a shovel and she stands near a federal table. Toning. Reeded frames, 13.5"h. 10.75"w. Ex Paul Carpenter, sold at Garth's, October 1997.

Condition Report: Both have overall toning, not glued down. Frances has a crease with some colored in loss across the width.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $1,000-1,500

Price Realized: $2,640


PENNSYLVANIA CHIPPENDALE SPICE CABINET, Third quarter-18th century, walnut with poplar secondary. Dovetailed case with applied molding and ogee bracket feet. Two over three dovetailed drawers with original brass pulls. Door has scratch beading. Old refinishing. Some imperfections. 20"h. 16"w. 10”d.

Condition Report: Pieced feet repairs, some stains on top, age splits and shrinkage separation. Front left foot facing may have bottom half replaced, pieced hinge repair. Scorch marks on inside of door and small pieced repair to left side of case. Age split on left front foot.

Sold at Garth’s Auction November 29, 2019.

Estimate: $1,500-2,500

Price Realized: $8,700


EARLY RED-PAINTED PINE SLANT-BACK CUPBOARD, ht. 73.75, wd. 46.25, dp. 18.5 in.

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 21, 2019.

Estimate: $800-1,200

Price Realized: $1,599


SET OF SIX QUEEN ANNE WALNUT SIDE CHAIRS, 18th century, ht. 42 in.

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 21, 2019.

Estimate: $600-800

Price Realized: $3,321


TWO SMALL SHAKER PAINTED FINGER LAPPED SEAM BOXES, 19th century, one with old jelly label on underside inscribed "Andrews," lg. to 6.25 in.

Red box is 2 1/2" x 6" x 4", the yellow box is 2.25" x 6.25" x 4", small sliver of loss to the base of one side.

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 21, 2019.

Estimate: $400-600

Price Realized: $5,535


GOURAUD FRANCOIS FAUVEL (1808-1847) LETTER SIGNED, 29 NOVEMBER 1839. Single sheet of wove paper with a period photo-mechanically reproduced letter in Gouraud's hand of self-introduction and an invitation to a private showing of daguerreotypes in New York, scheduled for Wednesday, December 4th, from 11:00 am to 1:00 pm at the Hotel Francais at 57 Broadway, with day of the week, date, and hour of commencement added by hand and signed by Gouraud; at least two other copies of similar letters have surfaced, old folds, 9.75 x 7.75 in.

"Dear Sir, As the friend and pupil of Mr. Gaguerre, I came from Paris by the British Queen, with the charge of introducing to the new world, the perfect knowledge of the marvellous process of drawing, which fame has already made known to you under the name of the Daguerreotype. Having the good fortune to possess a collection of the finest proofs which have yet been made either by the most talented pupils of Mr. Daguerre, or by that great artist himself, I have thought it my duty, before showing them to the public to give the most eminent men, and distinguished artists of this City, the satisfaction of having the first view of perhaps the most interesting object which has ever been exposed to the curiosity of a man of taste, and therefore if agreeable to you, I shall have the honor of receiving you on Wednesday next the 4th Dec. from the hours of 11 to one o'clock inclusive at the Hotel Francais No. 57 Broadway, where this invitation will admit you. I remain Sir Your mo: obedt servant, Francois Gouraud, New York, 29th Nov. 1839."

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 11, 2019.

Estimate: $300-500

Price Realized: $11,070


ACTS PASSED AT THE FIRST SESSION OF THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Philadelphia: by E. Oswald, 1793 [and] Richard Folwell, 1796. Three octavo volumes, bound in uniform tan sheepskin, original red morocco spine labels, some peeling to some volumes, I: [pi]4, B-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Eee4 (Eee4 blank & present); II: [pi]4, B-Z4, Aa-Zz4, 3A-3C4 (3C4 blank & present); III: [pi]4, B-Z4, Aa-Zz4, 3A-3Z4, 4A-4G4; 8 x 5 in. (3).

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 11, 2019.

Estimate: $400-600

Price Realized: $1,476


AMERICAN PAMPHLETS, 18TH CENTURY. A collection of American sermons and other short works, small format, in various states, printed in this country in the 18th century, including: A Just and Impartial Narrative of the Controversy between the Rev. Mr. Samuel Fisk the Pastor, and a number of the Brethren of the First Church of Christ in Salem, Boston: Fleet, 1735; and others, including funeral sermons, sermons with a political flavor, one regarding an earthquake, etc., not collated.

A Just and Impartial Narrative of the controversy between The Rev. Mr. Samuel Fisk the Pastor, and a Number of the Brethren of the First Church of Christ in Salem. Boston: by Thomas Fleet, 1735.

Cooper, William. The Honours of Christ Demanded of the Magistrate, a Sermon Preach'd in the Audience of his Excellency the Governour. Boston: by Draper for Edwards & Foster, 1740.

Prentice, Thomas. Observations Moral and Religious, on the Late Terrible Night of the Earthquake. Boston: by Kneeland for Henchman, 1756.

Pemberton, Ebenezer. A Sermon Preached in the Audience of the Honourable His Majesty's Council. Boston: John Draper, 1757.

Backus, Isaac. A Discourse Shewing the Nature and Necessity of an Internal Call to Preach the Everlasting Gospel. Boston: by Fowle, 1754. (Definitely incomplete at the end.)

Rowland, David. Historical Remarks, with Moral Reflections. A Sermon Preached at Providence, June 6, 1779. Providence: John Carter, [n.d.]

Chauncy, Charles. Cornelius's Character. A Sermon Preach'd the Lord's-Day after the Funeral of Mr. Cornelius Thayer. Boston: for D. Gookin, 1745.

[and] a sammelband containing:

Letter from J--h J----n, one of the Mohegan Tribe of Indians, to his Countryman. (no title)

Sewall, Joseph. A Tender Heart Pleasing to God, and Profitable to Men. A Sermon [...] on the Death of Josiah Willard. Boston: Kneeland, 1756. (some bad tears)

Prince, Thomas. The Character of Caleb. Boston: Kneeland, 1756.

Checkley, Samuel Jr. The Christian Triumphing over Death through Christ. Boston: by Kneeland & Adams for Webb, 1765.

Gill, John. The Doctrine of Justification. Boston: by Rogers & Fowle for McAlpine, 1744. (title page lacking supplied in MS., bad tears, incomplete at end).

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 11, 2019.

Estimate: $400-600

Price Realized: $1,845


AN AFFECTING NARRATIVE OF THE CAPTIVITY AND SUFFERINGS OF MRS. MARY SMITH. Providence, RI: Printed for L. Scott, [1815]. 12mo, issue with reference to General Jackson; lacking half of the folding hand-colored woodcut frontispiece, broken with loss at the first vertical fold, with only two soldiers and one tree present, limp blue paper wrappers, twenty-four pages, illustrated with text woodcuts, corners clipped, rare, 7 x 4 in.

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 11, 2019.

Estimate: $1,000-1,500

Price Realized: $1,968


DICKENS, CHARLES (1812-1870) CHRISTMAS CAROL, FIRST EDITION. London: Chapman & Hall, 1843. 12mo, first issue, with "D" of Dickens unbroken in the gold tooling, with "Stave I" on first page of text, illustrated by John Leech with three colored plates, four text woodcuts, with pale green clay-coated endpapers, contemporary gift inscription dated 1843 on ffep; spot on fore-edge, binding shaken, spine panel detached, binding somewhat shifted, 6.5 x 4 in.

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 11, 2019.

Estimate: $1,000-1,500

Price Realized: $4,613


JONATHAN EDWARDS (1703-1758) SOME THOUGHTS CONCERNING THE PRESENT REVIVAL OF RELIGION IN NEW ENGLAND. Edinburgh: T. Lumisden and J. Robertson, 1743. Second edition, octavo, contemporary sheepskin, boards detached, in need of resewing, A2, B-Z4, Aa-Dd4, Ee6 (final blank Ee6 ?present); 6.75 x 4.5 in.

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 11, 2019.

Estimate: $300-400

Price Realized: $1,046






THOMAS PAINE (1737-1809) COMMON SENSE; Addressed to the Inhabitants of America. Norwich, Connecticut: Re-printed and Sold by Judah P. Spooner, and by T. Green, New-London, 1776. First Norwich edition, octavo, reprinted from the Philadelphia edition, stab sewn pamphlet, dog-eared, some toning, fly specking, 7.5 x 5 in. [A]4, B-G4, 56 p.

Sold at Skinner Auctions November 11, 2019.

Estimate: $500-700

Price Realized: $28,290


SHIP’S REGISTER SIGNED BY PRESIDENT OF SOUTH CAROLINA JOHN RUTLEDGE, 1776

Rutledge, John (1739-1800).President andfirst Governor of South Carolina (1776-1782), delegate at the Constitutional Convention, and Chief Justice of the South Carolina Supreme Court. Partially printed DS as President of South Carolina, the title of the state's executive office from 1776 until 1778, 1p, 7.5 x 9.5 in. "Custom-House, Charlestown." November 21, 1776.

Ship's register certifying that merchants William Price, Samuel Legare, and Nathaniel Russell of Charlestonowned the sloopActive, built in Bermuda in 1771. Rutledge's signature appears in upper left margin.Nathaniel Russell (1738-1820), the most prominent of the ship's owners, settled in Charleston as a young man in 1765and made his livingexporting local staplesincludingrice, indigo, tobacco, and cotton. He alsoparticipated in the slave trade andhadmercantile connectionsin West Africa, the West Indies, England,continental Europe, and South America.

Condition: One of the two paper-over-wax seals absent, with only a remnant of the red wax present. Creasing and toning, with areas of staining and surface soil. Large hole at lower right.

Sold at Cowan’s Auction November 15, 2019.

Estimate: $1,200-1,800

Price Realized: $2,944


NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 1814 LS TO MARSHALL MICHEL NEY, in Final Weeks Before Exile.

Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769-1821). LS, 2pp, framed as a triptych, letter float framed on left, when opened the verso of the letter is visible. 28.25 x 18.5 in. (triptych closed); 56.5 in. (full width of triptych open). February 25, 1814.

This letter signed by Napoleon was written during his final campaign in north-east France in the War of the Sixth Coalition. In the aftermath of the disastrous invasion of Russia and the subsequent Great Retreat, a complex coalition of Continental powers, Great Britain, and rebelling Napoleonic subjects coalesced to challenge Napoleon’s empire. Following their victory in Leipzig at the Battle of Nations (October 16-19, 1813) and Napoleon’s rejection of the Frankfurt Proposals (November 1813) the coalition moved to invade the motherland of the Empire and advanced on Paris.

At the closing of 1813 and the beginning of 1814, two armies prepared to invade France: The Army of Bohemia (Grand Army) with 200,000-210,000 Austrian, Bavarian, Russian, and Wurttemberg troops led by Karl Philipp, Prince Schwarzenberg and The Army of Silesia with 50,000-56,000 Prussians and Russians under Prince Blücher. Napoleon himself was commanding the French resistance in the north east as his Marshals Soult and Suchet were leading troops in the south-west to combat Wellington invading through the Pyrenees.

The Six Days’ Campaign was waged between February 10 and 15, 1814 where Napoleon’s much smaller force of 30,000 routed Blücher and forced the retreat of the Army of Silesia. He then decisively turned to Schwarzenberg’s army with victories at Mormant (17 February), Montreau (18 February), and Méry-sur-Seine (21 February). This letter was written in the afterglow of these final victories to Michel Ney, 1st Duke of Elchingen and 1st Prince of the Moskva (1769-1815) and one of his original 18 Marshals of the Empire. He greets Ney affectionately, opening the letter, “Mon Cousin” and goes on to detail troop movements and locations of his various marshals including the Duke of Taranto (Jacques MacDonald, 1765-1840), Duke of Belluno (Claude Victor-Perrin, 1764-1841), Duke of Ragusa (Auguste de Marmont, 1774-1852), General Bordesoulle (Étienne Tardif de Pommeroux de Bordesoulle, 1771-1837), General Roussel (Nicolas-François Roussel d’Hurbal, 1763-1849), and General Boyer (Pierre François Xavier Boyer, 1772-1851).

Napoleon had learned that Schwarzenberg and Blücher had separated and Blücher was heading for Paris, with only Marmont in his path, he writes to Ney from Troyes (in translation), “The Duke of Ragusa has recognized, yesterday the 24th, Blücher, who was at Anglure with eight to ten thousand men. The Duke of Ragusa’s forces were not strong enough to attack; they are on observation. General Bordesoulle is at Villenauxe with one thousand horses. I have called back the division of the Dragoons of General Roussel that I shall send tomorrow at the beginning of the day to join you so you can send me back the detachment of my guard."He then specifies to Ney (in translation), “I think that at the present situation it is necessary that you take position at Arcis-Sur-Aube; that you take possession of the bridge; that you rebuild it if it is burned and that you control the two river banks.” Several more battles would ensue, but it was here at Arcis-sur-Aube on March 20-21 where the last major battle of the War of the Sixth Coalition would occur.

Not longafter this letter, Marmont would betray the Empire while defending Paris, capitulating to the Allies. Ney too became disillusioned and would become the figurehead and spokesperson for the Marshal’s revolt on April 4, 1814 at Fontainebleau, demanding Napoleon’s abdication. In the famous exchange, Ney informed Napoleon that the army would not advance to Paris and when Napoleon responded that “the army will obey me!” it was Ney who answered, “the army will obey its chiefs.” After Napoleon’s subsequent abdication and exile to Elba, Ney would swear fealty to the restored Bourbon King Louis XVIII. Though Ney would initially pledge fealty to Louis upon Napoleon's return, Ney would rejoin Napoleon at Auxerre, ultimately fighting heroically at Waterloo, and subsequently be tried and executed for treason on December 7, 1815.

Letter is framed with a typed translation, facsimile map after Hyacinthe LangloisCarte Politique et Itinéraire de l’Europe et de L’empire Français en 1807, and 19th century engraving by an unknown artist titledNapoleon au Palais de Tuileries(Napoleon in the Tuileries Palace).

Condition: Minor brown spotting, else VG++.

Please note that the accompanying translation is incomplete; the complete transliteration and translation of the letter closing: "Je prie Dieu qu'il vous ait en sa sainte et digne garde" ("I pray to God that he will have you in his holy and worthy guard.”)

Sold at Cowan’s Auction November 15, 2019.

Estimate: $1,500-2,500

Price Realized: $4,063






ENSLAVED AFRICAN AMERICANS WITH COTTON.

Anonymous, quarter plate daguerreotype, ca 1850-1860.

Though its exact provenance may never be known, this daguerreotype is believed to depict the rural Greene County, Georgia plantation of Samuel T. Gentry (1798-1873). Gentry moved to Greene County from South Carolina sometime between 1820 and 1830. By 1830 his family included six white members, and three enslaved African Americans.

While other Gentrys lived in Georgia at the time this image was taken, Federal Slave Schedules from 1850 and 1860 indicate a mere handful were slave holders. And only one -- Samuel T. Gentry -- (sometimes listed as “Saml”) owned at least 10 slaves, the number depicted in this daguerreotype.From 1850to 1860, Gentry owned between fifteen andeighteen men, women, and children.

At the time of this writing, the Gentry daguerreotype is the only known antebellum image showing enslaved African Americans displaying cotton, the agricultural product that dominated the economy of the Southern states and elevated a land-owner class through its cultivation. While other images showing the juxtaposition of enslaved African Americans and cotton are known from the Union occupations of coastal Georgia and the Carolinas, this image predates them.

More importantly, the Gentry daguerreotype documents slavery in a far more humble setting than the large coastal plantations depicted in post-Civil War images taken by Samuel Cooley and other photographers who accompanied the Union Army. In these Sea Island plantations, hundreds of slaves were owned by a small class of planter elites, providing their families with access to luxuries only dreamed of by the vast majority of Georgians. While this is the vision most Americans have of the antebellum south, the Gentry daguerreotype depicts a different reality.

At the beginning of the Civil War, only 37% of Georgia’s free families owned slaves; about 15% of these families owned more than 20, and the vast majority owned six slaves or fewer. The 1860 Federal Slave Schedule enumerates 8,398 slaves in Greene County, with 53 slaveholders owning more than 35 slaves each (about 35% of the total). The remaining slaves were distributed among 524 owners. Gentry is listed as owning real property valued at $2,900, and personal property valued at $12,000; presumably this latter figure incorporates the value of hiseighteen slaves. Samuel Gentry was no mere yeoman farmer, but neither was he a member of the upper stratum of the planter class. In a world where wealth was measured by land and slaves, Gentry was simply a man who was striving for more; he was clearly “on his way up” the socio-economic ladder.

It is probable that Gentry commissioned this photograph to document his prosperity. The photographer carefully posed the scene so that the family “wealth” is clearly on display: ten enslaved African Americans are visible in the picture, with several displaying baskets of cotton perched atop their heads. Cotton – the production of which was made possible by Gentry’s slaves – is an integral part of the tableau.

Gentry himself is believed to be the man in the top hat at the left of the plate. He leans on a cane, held in his left hand. Below his knees movement is clearly visible -- perhaps a dog jumping and straining at a leash? Such a denizen would hardly be a surprising element of plantation life, where the threat of violence was an everyday part of enslavement.

The two-story building at center also figures prominently as a symbol of the Gentry family wealth. While not an imposing mansion, it is an integral element of the scene. The end of the structure visible to the viewer lacks windows, suggesting an original two story building constructed of logs and later covered by lap board. The front and rear galleries are high and inset beneath the broken slope of the roof, the double-wing structure of which is commonly found in Georgia. The rows of tall, narrow posts on either side of the structure may have served as temporary supports for the roof, anticipating the later addition of a more elegant colonnade, or just as likely were a cost-sensitive attempt to refine the façade.

The log building in the foreground at right features half-dovetail notching, aconstruction technique prevalent throughout much of the south in the early and mid-nineteenth century. Short boards nailed end-to-end cover the upper logs of the exterior, suggesting an attempt to dress the cabin to match the residence, though not at the expense of using long milled boards; the lower portion of the cabin reveals its original character. This outbuilding contrasts with the main house and, whether as a smokehouse or slave cabin, adds to the rural nature of the scene.

A large well enclosed by unpainted planking is visible in the foreground indicating that the residence lacked a cistern, a means of capturing water used by homes of a grander manner. The scale of the crank mechanism is large and features two handles, indicating the well had been deeply dug to reach a water-table consistent with an upland setting. This simple but necessary feature contrasts with the residence. No attempt has been made to present it as anything other than a functional element of daily life.

The daguerreotype captures Gentry’s rural status and achievements. Between 1830 and 1860, his slave-holdings had increased from three to eighteen. This increase in wealth allowed him to cover his two-story log cabin with white painted clapboard, add a new roofline and build two large overhanging galleries supported by rudimentary columns to add dimension and vertical importance to the building’s appearance. And yet, as the log outbuilding and crude well proclaim, Gentry’s socioeconomic status was impossibly distant from the wealthiest planters.

The world that Gentry and his family occupied forever changed with the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation. Two of Gentry’s sons, Samuel Jr. and Robert A., enlisted in the Greene Light Guards, serving in Company I of the 8th Georgia Infantry. Little is known of Samuel Jr.’s service; Robert was wounded twice and served the entirety of the war. At war’s end both returned to a much diminished economic reality. By 1870 Samuel Jr. was a tenant farmer living with a wife and daughter in nearby Hancock County with personal property valued at $375. Robert remained in Greene County, farming and caring for a family and his elderly father. By this time the family owned real estate valued at $2500 and personal property valued at $500. SamuelSr. died in 1873.

Provenance: This compelling and historically important daguerreotype was recently discovered in the Austin, Texas estate of Charles Gentry Jr. (1958-2012), who moved there from Rockmart, in Polk County, Georgia.

Numerous Gentrys have resided in the areas around Polk, Hancock, and Greene Counties, and we suspect the daguerreotype was passed from Charles Gentry Sr. to his son. How Charles Sr. came to own the image is unknown, though presumably it passed by descent through a member of his patrilineal line.

Using the Gentry family in Georgia as a starting point, Federal Census and Slave Schedules were used to pinpoint the most logical original owner of the daguerreotype. These data indicate that Samuel T. Gentry was the only Gentry in antebellum Georgia who owned enough enslaved African Americans to qualify as the subject matter of the daguerreotype.

Cowan’s also was cognizant that the architecture visible in the image might be distinctive enough to identify the location. We gratefully acknowledge discussions held with the following regional architectural historians and other professionals: Stan Deaton, Dr. Elaine B. Andrews Distinguished Historian, Georgia Historical Society; Bess Althaus Graham, Director of the Division of Architecture, Texas Historical Commission; Olivia Head, National Register Specialist, Georgia Historic Preservation Division; Mark McDonald, President & CEO, The Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation; Mimi Miller, Executive Director, Historic Natchez Foundation; Erick Montgomery, Executive Director, Historic Augusta; and Celeste Wiley, Visual Materials Archivist, South Carolina Historical Society. These discussions indicate the structures fall easily into the vernacular architecture of the Fall Line of Georgia, and the Carolinas.

Condition: The daguerreotype was professionally conserved in 2019 by Dr. Mike Robinson of the Century Darkroom, Toronto, Canada. A summary of the treatment is listed below:

• Daguerreotype disassembled and tape residues removed

• Plate rinsed with distilled water

• Plate electrocleaned using alternating anodic and cathodic currents in separate solutions

• Plate re-glazed with electro-verre 3mm low-iron glass, with Mylar spacer installed between plate and brass mat

• Image, mat, and glass bound together with P90 pressure-sensitive tape and Myalr tape overlayer

• Daguerreotype package rehoused in original leather case, with repair at hinges

Sold at Cowan’s Auction November 15, 2019.

Estimate: $100,000-150,000

Price Realized: $324,500


A 13-STAR ‘GREAT STAR' PATTERN AMERICAN FLAG, late 18th/early 19th century. Hand-sewn, double appliqued linen stars arranged in a 'Great Star' formation on a wool bunting canton, hand-sewn stripes, a later cotton canvas hoist with two lead grommets with rope attached, mounted and framed. 30.25 in. x 43.5 in. (sight)

Literature: Kevin Keim & Peter Keim, A Grand Old Flag: A History of the United States Through its Flags (2007), 32.

Note: On June 14, 1777, the Continental Congress in Philadelphia passed the First Flag Resolution which stated, "Resolved That the Flag of the united states be 13 stripes alternate red and white, that the Union be 13 stars white in a blue field representing a new constellation." No specific proportions, star-form or configuration of stars were given.

Sold at Freeman’s Auction November 24, 2019.

Estimate: $15,000-25,000

Price Realized: $33,750


A 24-STAR AMERICAN FLAG COMMEMORATING MISSOURI STATEHOOD, circa 1822. Hand-sewn, single appliqued cotton stars arranged in 4 rows of 6, on a three-part wool bunting canton, the stars are unusual in that they "peek" through to the front, hand-sewn stripes, canvas hoist retains hemp rope, two hand-sewn grommets, mounted and framed.

36 in. x 57 in. (sight)

Literature: Kevin Keim & Peter Keim, A Grand Old Flag: A History of the United States Through its Flags (2007), 71.

Note: The admission of Missouri, as a Slave state, August 10, 1821, and Maine as a Free state, were provided for by the passage of the controversial Missouri Compromise. The Compromise sought to maintain the balance of power between the North and the South in the U. S. Senate and also prohibited slavery north of the 36 30' parallel-excluding Missouri. The legislation is credited to the oratorical and political skills of Speaker of the House Henry Clay.

24-Star Flags are rare, especially in this example where the stars are applied on the reverse and "peek" through to the front.

Sold at Freeman’s Auction November 24, 2019.

Estimate: $5,000-7,000

Price Realized: $25,000


A 28-STAR ‘GREAT STAR' AMERICAN FLAG COMMEMORATING TEXAS STATEHOOD, circa 1846. Hand-sewn, double appliqued cotton stars in a 'Great Star' pattern, with hand-sewn cotton stripes, with a twill cotton hoist with hand-stitched grommet, mounted and framed. 52.5 in. x 107 in. (sight).

Provenance: Jeffrey Kenneth Kohn, MD, Pennsylvania, August 4, 2004.

Literature: Kevin Keim & Peter Keim, A Grand Old Flag: A History of the United States Through its Flags (2007), 85 & accompanying fold-out.

Exhibition: The Bullock Texas State History Museum, Austin, Texas.

Sold at Freeman’s Auction November 24, 2019.

Estimate: $15,000-25,000

Price Realized: $68,750


GILBERT STUART (1755-1828) PORTRAIT OF OZIAS HUMPHREY, R. A. (1742-1810) OIL ON CANVAS, FRAMED, 29.5 in. x 24 in. (sight)

Provenance: By descent from the sitter.

Dr. Crompton, Cranleigh, England.

Thence by descent to Stephen Rowland, London, 1891.

Charles Henry Hart, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1914, acquired from Stephen Rowland.

By descent to Charles' wife, Mrs. Charles Henry Hart, New York.

Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. Payson, New York.

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc., New York, New York, May 11, 1966, Sale 2438, Lot 33.

Purchased at above sale by Dr. John J. McDonough, Youngstown, Ohio.

Sold in McDonough's sale: Sotheby Parke-Bernet, New York, New York, March 22, 1978, Sale 4098, Lot 9.

Traveling Exhibition History: A Panorama of American Painting: The John J. McDonough Collection

New Orleans Museum of Art, New Orleans, Louisiana; Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego, San Diego, California; Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute, San Antonio, Texas; Arkansas Arts Center, Little Rock, Arkansas; Westmoreland Museum of Art, Greensburg, Pennsylvania; The North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, North Carolina; Oklahoma Art Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Butler Art Institute, Youngstown, Ohio, April 1975-October 1976, p. 61, no. 54, illustration plate 3.

Literature: Connoisseur, June 1914, pg. 85.

Williamson, George C., Life and Works of Ozias Humphrey, R. A. (London: Bodley Head, 1918), opposite pg. 218.

Arts and Decoration, November 1922, pg. 35.

Park, Lawrence, Gilbert Stuart: An Illustrated Descriptive List of His Works, vol. I (New York: William Edwin Rudge, 1926), pg. 423, no. 423, and vol. III, pg. 255.

Sold at Freeman’s Auction November 12, 2019.

Estimate: $15,000-25,000

Price Realized: $18,750






MAP OF THE UNITED STATES WITH THE CONTIGUOUS BRITISH & SPANISH POSSESSIONS COMPILED FROM THE LATEST & BEST AUTHORITIES. PHILADELPHIA.

John Melish (Scottish/American 1771-1822) First Edition, 5th State (Ristow), 1816

Engraved folding map by J. Vallance and H.S. Tanner, in 40 sections mounted on linen, hand-colored; Cadiz and Cambridge appear in Ohio, Frankfort is renamed Washington, Charleston replaces CH in Western Virginia, Great Falls and Salt works added to Virginia, N. Geneva is deleted and re-engraved near Union in SW Pennsylvania, the road between Steubenville and Zanesville is relocated in Ohio. approx. 35 in. x 58 in. open.

Provcenance: Property of a Virginia gentleman.

According to Walter Ristow (1908-2006), the pioneering map librarian and author, John Melish "played a leading role in bringing together from many and varied sources, the geographical knowledge of the period, and in presenting it in a attractive and orderly manner for the edification and enlightenment of citizens and visitors alike during the expanding and formative year of the young nation." Melish is considered the first accurate American map maker.

Born in Scotland, Melish settled in Philadelphia in 1812 and established a publishing company focused on maps and guidebooks. This map is one of only 100 of the 5th state or version printed in 1816. Twenty-five different states or versions were eventually printed between 1816-1823. They represent the first attempts to depict the territory beyond the Mississippi, and the first American map to depict the country from coast to coast. Constantly revised and "compiled from the latest & best authorities", Melish stated that "By the plan adopted, the subject is always new. The map is printed off 100 at a time, and before a new hundred be printed, the plates are revised, and if there be room for corrections or improvements, these are made accordingly." Widely appreciated, Melish maps were owned by John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Quincy Adams, James Monroe and James Madison.

Sold at Freeman’s Auction November 12, 2019.

Estimate: $15,000-25,000

Price Realized: $43,750


SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE (1791-1828) PORTRAIT OF MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS PINCKNEY (1750-1828) OF CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA, CIRCA 1820, Oil on canvas, verso retains two printed exhibition labels from the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., framed. 43 in. x 38 in. (sight)

Provenance: By descent in the Pinckney family to the present owners.

Though born in Charleston, Thomas Pinckney spent most of his youth in England. He was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church College and studied law at the Middle Temple. Pinckney returned to South Carolina in 1774 and was admitted to the Bar and began a law practice. A staunch supporter of American Independence, Pinckney joined the First South Carolina Regiment- as a Captain in 1775, was responsible for drilling and recruitment of soldiers and involved in fortification engineering. He served as an aide-de-camp to General Horatio Gates and was wounded and captured at the Battle of Camden. In 1781, Pinckney served under the Marquis de Lafayette in Virginia.

After the completion of the War of Independence, Pinckney returned to his legal practice and plantation management. He was elected Governor of South Carolina in 1787, and presided over the South Carolina State convention to ratify the Constitution. Pinckney later served in the South Carolina House of Representatives. From 1792 to 1796, Pinckney held the position of Minister to Britain under President George Washington and in 1795 was asked to serve as a Special Envoy to Spain. In that role Pinckney negotiated the Treaty of San Lorenzo which granted Americans the privilege to use the Port of New Orleans with access to the Mississippi River. It also established a clear boundary between Spanish Florida and the United States.

Upon return to the United States Pinckney was nominated as the Federalist candidate for President in the election of 1796. He came in third place after, Adams and Jefferson. Pinckney served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1797-1801

Pinckney returned to military service at the request of President James Madison during the War of 1812, with the rank of Major General in charge of the Southern Division of the U.S. Army. A founding member of the Society of Cincinnati, Pinckney became its 4th President General, succeeding his brother, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.

The brilliant inventor-artist Samuel Finley Breese Morse of Boston spent the winters of 1817 through 1821 working in Charleston, painting portraits of the city's elite. His father, a Congregationalist minister, Jebediah Morse, was a friend of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Thomas's brother, and his maternal uncle, James E.B. Finley, was a well-known Charleston physician. The latter wrote to his nephew June 16, 1818, "I saw old General C.C. Pinckney yesterday, and he told me in his laughing, humourous way, that he had requested you to draw his brother Thomas twenty years younger than he really was, so as to be a companion to his own when he was twenty years older that at this time, and to flatter him, as he had directed Stuart to do." Morse painted both Pinckney brothers.

Exhibition History: "If Elected. Unsuccessful Candidates for the Presidency, 1796-1968,"National portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., May 3 to September 4, 1972.

"Old Hickory: A Life Sketch of Jackson," National Portrait Gallery,

Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., November 9., 1990-January 13 1991 and Tennessee State Museum , February 18,1991 - April 29, 1991.

Columbia Museum of Art. Columbia, South Carolina.

Greenville County Museum of Art , Greenville, South Carolina.

Literature: Nina G. Parris, "South Carolina Collection, 1779-1985," (1986) Columbia Museum of Art, 24.

Lillian B. Miller, If Elected. Unsuccessful Candidates for the Presidency, 1796-1968, (1972) 24.

Harry B. Wehle, Samuel F. B. Morse American Painter - A Study Occasioned by an Exhibition of his Paintings , February 16 through March 27, 1932, (1932) ,41.

Sold at Freeman’s Auction November 12, 2019.

Estimate: $60,000-100,000

Price Realized: $187,500


RARE HISTORICAL BLUE STAFFORDSHIRE 'ARMS OF PENNSYLVANIA' PLATTER, Thomas Mayer, Stoke, Cliff Bank Works, circa 1830, Mark of transfer-printed eagle and "E. Pluribus Unum" on verso.

L: 20.75 in. W: 16 in.

Provenance: Collection of the late Dr. Luther W. Brady (1925-2018), Philadelphia. Dr. Brady was a renowned radiation oncologist, professor, and supporter of the visual and musical arts.

Sold at Freeman’s Auction November 12, 2019.

Estimate: $15,000-25,000

Price Realized: $15,000


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